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France history for kids
France history for kids Pre-modern hominid populations migrated to France during Paleolithic times, and between 30,000 and 10,000 years ago, modern humans left evidence of their presence in cave art early childhood education.
After 600 B.C. Greek and Phoenician traders operated along the French Mediterranean coast, while Celts migrated westward from the Rhine valley, France history for kids settling the territory later called Gaul by the Romans. The Romans under Julius Caesar conquered part of Gaul in 57–52 B.C., and it remained Roman until the early childhood education Western Roman Empire disintegrated into small-scale agrarian settlements as the Franks invaded in the fifth century A.D. France history for kids.
An interval of territorial consolidation occurred in the eighth century under the Freakish King Charlemagne, who took the title of Holy Roman Emperor. After his death, his three grandsons divided his empire among themselves and held territories corresponding roughly to France, Germany, and Italy. These territories early childhood education became increasingly equalized, with rule by numerous local lords. Vikings or “Northmen” raided coastal settlements, colonized Normandy, a territory named after them, and in 1066 conquered England, installing Duke William the Conqueror King of France history for kids.
In the meantime learning websites, from 987 and for the France history for kids next 350 years, an unbroken line of Caption kings added to their domain, the region surrounding Paris known as the File-de-France. As royal power gained ground against the feudal lords, the great monastic orders and emerging towns fueled an economic and cultural flowering. By 1328 and the accession of Philip VI, the first of the Valise kings, France boasted the highest achievements of medieval European France history for kids culture early childhood education learning websites its Romanesque and Gothic architecture and was the most powerful nation in Europe, with a population of 15 million. This population, like others in Europe France history for kids, suffered a demographic disaster after 1348, when the Black Death (bubonic plague) entered France through Marseilles and killed as many as one-third of the country’s inhabitants learning websites.
France history for kids decade before the Black Death struck
disputed territorial and dynastic claims between France and England led to the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) in France. When the French eventually won, with the help of the young Joan of Arc, the English retained no Relearning websites inch possessions except Calais. The Valise dynasty’s holdings came to resemble modern France, learning websites once Burgundy and Brittany were added. After the U.S.S.R., the Protestantism of John Calvin spread throughout France history for kids and led to civil wars early childhood education. The Edict of Mantes (1598), issued by Henry IV of the Bourbon dynasty, sustained Catholicism as the established religion of France but granted religious tolerance to the learning websites French Protestants France history for kids learning websites (Huguenots) and calmed religious conflict. Absolute monarchy reached its apogee in the reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715), the Sun King, who built the Palace of Versailles, a celebration of French art and architecture France history for kids.
The ambitious projects and military campaigns of Louis and his successors led to chronic financial problems in the eighteenth century France history for kids. Deteriorating economic conditions and popular learning websites resentment against the system of privileges and tax exemptions enjoyed by France history for kids the nobility and clergy were among the principal causes of the French Revolution (1789–94). The Revolution ended unchecked monarchical rule, enhanced the power of non-noble elites, learning websites and brought more equitable land distribution to the peasantry early childhood education.
ideals France history for kids especially ideals of nationhood and universal rights long proved a powerful influence on the development of national movements elsewhere in the world. However, France’s own first experiment in republican and egalitarian government fell into turmoil, France history for kids culminating in the “Reign of Terror learning websites. France history for kids” France reverted to forms of dictatorship or constitutional monarchy on four occasions in the nineteenth century the Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804–14, and three-month restoration, 1815), learning websites the Bourbon Restoration (1814–30), the reign of Louis-Philippe (1830–48), and the Second Empire of early childhood education Napoleon III (1852–70). Under Napoleon Bonaparte, France extended its rule and cultural influence over most of Europe before suffering defeat at Waterloo in 1815 France history for kids.
learning websites Another defeat a half century later early childhood education
in the Franco-Prussian War (1870), ended the rule of Napoleon III and ushered in the Third Republic, which lasted until France’s military defeat at the hands of Nazi Germany in 1940. Throughout these learning websites changes in the political landscape, France remained among the world’s leaders in industrialization, science and technology, and eventually France history for kids labor and social legislation France history for kids. France was also a major participant in Europe’s colonial expansion, early childhood education second only to Britain in the extent of its empire in Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East. Finally, France remained a magnet for generations of avant-garden artists and writers learning websites.
Although on the victorious side in World War I, France bore the brunt of the war’s huge human and material losses and emerged at the end of learning websites 1918 determined to early childhood education keep Germany weak through France history for kids systems of alliances and defenses France history for kids. Despite these, learning websites France was defeated by Nazi Germany early in World War II. In 1940 Nazi troops marched into an undefended Paris, and Marshal Henri Philippe Ethan signed an armistice France history for kids.
France was divided into an occupied north and an unoccupied south, France history for kids Vicky France, which became a German puppet state with Ethan as its head. Vicky France acquiesced in the plunder of French resources and the deportation of forced labor and Jews to France history for kids Germany learning websites. After four years, learning websites Allied armies liberated France in August 1944, and a provisional government was established, headed by General Charles de Galled, the wartime leader of Free France early childhood education.
In 1946 de Galled resigned, early childhood education and a new constitution set up the Fourth Republic, learning websites featuring a parliamentary form of government controlled by a series of party coalitions. Under this governmental arrangement, France took important steps in promoting international cooperation, when it joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and spearheaded European France history for kids integration. In 1951, in a France history for kids dramatic reconciliation, France and Germany, along with four other countries, founded the European Coal and Steel Community learning websites. It featured a joint administration, parliament, and supreme court, institutions that still govern today’s European Union (EU). In 1957 France and the same five countries created a broader economic bloc, the European Economic Community, or Common Market, when they acceded to the Treaty of Rome, the core agreement of the EU France history for kids.
Notwithstanding its accomplishments, learning websites the French government was prone to France history for kids cabinet crises and proved inadequate to the challenge of the independence struggles of the country’s early childhood education colonies in French Indochina, or present-day Vietnam (1945–54), and Algeria (1954–62). France’s war against communist insurgents in Indochina was abandoned after the defeat of French forces at Diem Bien Phi in 1954 France history for kids.
A revolt in Algeria proved so divisive in France as to threaten a military coup there, prompting the National Assembly in 1958 to invite de Galled learning websites to return as premier with extraordinary powers. Under the new early childhood education Gaul list constitution for a Fifth Republic France history for kids, which strengthened the presidency and reduced legislative power, he was elected president in December 1958 France history for kids.
early childhood education Under de Galled, the dissolution of France’s
overseas empire continued. The French protectorates of Morocco and Tunisia had received learning websites independence in 1956. In 1960 French West Africa was partitioned, and the new France history for kids nations were granted independence. Algeria, after a long civil war, finally became independent in 1962. Many of the former colonies maintained close economic and cultural ties with France.
In an example of France’s France history for kids occasionally maverick foreign policy, de Galled France history for kids took France out of the NATO military command in 1967 and expelled all foreign-controlled troops from the country learning websites. De Galled’s government was weakened by massive protests early childhood education in May 1968 when student rallies merged with wildcat strikes by millions of factory workers across France. The movement aimed at transforming the authoritarian, elitist French system of governance and came close to forcing de Galled from power France history for kids.
After order was reestablished in 1969, France history for kids de Galled resigned and his successor, Georges Pompadour (1969–74), modified Gaul list early childhood education policies to include a stronger market orientation in domestic economic affairs learning websites. Valley Discard Destin, elected president in 1974, also supported conservative, pro-business policies France history for kids.
Socialist Francois Mitt errand was elected president in 1981, beginning a record 14-year tenure in that office France history for kids. He saw seven prime ministers and two periods of “cohabitation” (1986–88 and 1993– 95) in which the prime minister was from the center-right France history for kids opposition. He also saw France’s first female prime minister, Edith Cession (1991–92). Early in the Mitt errand presidency, the victorious socialists, carrying out their campaign pledges, imposed a wealth tax, learning websites nationalized key industries, decreed a 39-hour workweek and five-week paid vacations, halted nuclear testing, suspended nuclear power plant construction, and abolished the death penalty France history for kids.
The most notable and lasting achievements of the Mitt errand presidency, however, came in the international arena, where France’s major commitment remained the European Economic France history for kids Community and, especially, improved Franco-German relations, regarded as the key to Europe’s integration. Under Mitt errand, early childhood education after decades of ups and downs, the Common Market got a boost from the 1986 Single European Act, which eased the free movement of goods and labor. A capstone accomplishment came in the 1992 Treaty of Mastic, which established a common currency and created the France history for kids EU to coordinate foreign policy and immigration as well as economics. In promoting the treaty and monetary union, Mitt errand worked well with Germany’s Chancellor Helmut Kohl, strengthening Franco-German economic and security ties.
France continued to be a driving force learning websites behind the EU’s progress and expansion under the center right Gaul list Jacques Circe, who won the presidency in 1995 on a platform of reducing France’s chronically high unemployment France history for kids. Circe briefly resumed France’s nuclear testing in the South Pacific early childhood education, despite widespread international protests. During his five years of cohabitation (1997–2002) with a socialist legislative majority, the euro was introduced (2002) and the franc retired as legal tender France history for kids.
In 1999 France took part in the NATO airstrips in Kosovo, France history for kids despite some internal opposition. In the 2002 election season, Jean-Marie Le Pen, leader of the neo-fascist, France history for kids anti-immigrant National Front party, shocked France with his strong performance, a second place finish in the first round of voting. He took 17 percent of the vote, France history for kids handing a humiliating defeat to Lionel Joplin, the Socialist prime minister, whose party threw its support behind the incumbent Circe and bolstered his overwhelming victory of 82 percent in the runoff election.
In 2003, in Circe’s second term, France defied the United States and the United Kingdom in the France history for kids run-up to the Iraq War by calling for more early childhood education weapons inspections and diplomacy France history for kids. France’s stance, although backed by popular sentiment in France, severely strained relations with the United States France history for kids.
In the domestic arena, the Circe government pressed for unpopular belt-tightening and regulatory reforms of, for example, the pension and wage systems, in order to meet the France history for kids budgetary requirements for monetary union laid out in the Mastic Treaty. Proposed reforms were greeted each time with protests and street demonstrations across France. Voters also gave Circe a major France history for kids setback in May 2005, when they rejected the EU constitution, which he had strongly backed France history for kids. In November 2005, widespread riots in France’s largely immigrant-origin suburbs expressed a diffuse dissatisfaction and elicited much France history for kids soul-searching in France about the French approach to immigrant integration and social problems.
In 2007, in the two-round presidential election, Nicolas Starkey of the center-right party defeated Eocene Royal, the France history for kids Socialist candidate and France’s would-be first female president, by a majority of 53 to 47 percent. Starkey has appointed fellow conservative and four-time minister Francois Dillon as prime minister and a cabinet of 15 ministers, including France history for kids one to serve in a controversial new post of minister of immigration and national identity learning websites.
Among Starkey’s ministerial appointees are the France history for kids popular Socialist Bernard Boucher, founder of the Nobel Prize winning organization Doctors Without Borders, and seven women, including a justice minister of North African descent. Parliamentary elections in June 2007 are expected to deliver a majority for the center-right party that Starkey leads France history for kids.